The US and China are Heading for Trouble


Somehow, like it or not, the world turns. Today’s hegemon becomes tomorrow’s also-ran. Today’s reserve currency becomes tomorrow’s wallpaper. Today’s cock o’ the walk becomes tomorrow’s dinner.

Hey, we didn’t create this system. We don’t even especially like it. But that’s just the way it is.

Whether you already have made a fortune, or are trying to build one, you need to be very careful about what currency…or currencies…your wealth in denominated in.

Governments were set up to take control. Ruling elites – by force of arms – established laws, protocols and armies to try to prevent anyone from taking their place.

Their wealth, power and status were to be preserved – at all cost. But in the 18th and 19th centuries, firearms started to become ubiquitous. It was harder for elites to maintain their authority over the masses.

Every farmer on the American frontier had a rifle. A rag-tag band of insurgents in the American colonies (with the help of the French Navy) could defeat the best army in the world. An out-of-work actor could buy a handgun and pop off a president.

Unable to stay in control by force alone, governments had to resort to fraud. Ordinary citizens were allowed to vote on who would rule over them. They were also promised the fruits of others’ labours, if they voted the right way.

For a time, it looked as though this new model – social democracies run by flaming politicians and professional functionaries – had defeated all rivals.

The Soviet Union – which had relied on more old-fashioned blunt force to run its slave-driven economy – capitulated in 1989. Maoist China had thrown in the towel, more or less, 10 years earlier when the country’s ‘paramount leader’, Deng Xiaoping, announced, ‘To get rich is glorious.‘ (Historians now claim he never actually uttered those words. But the phrase accurately captured his vision for China.) And Francis Fukuyama – hallucinating – wondered if the ‘end of history‘ was at hand.

If the end of history were at hand, the dollar, the Fed and federal finances would have nothing to worry about. But between history and the greenback, if we were taking bets, we’d put our money on history.

Most likely, history will trundle forward. And the renminbi will join (or replace) the dollar as the world’s leading currency sometime before the 21st century comes to a close.

But how, exactly, will that happen? No one knows…but few imperial elites give up the No. 1 position without a fight. As they see their power, their status and their wealth challenged, they typically find a casus belli, hoping to stomp the newcomer before it is too late.

The phenomenon is known to historians as the ‘Thucydides’ Trap’. Political scientist Graham Allison explains:

When a rapidly rising power rivals an established ruling power, trouble ensues. In 11 of 15 cases in which this has occurred in the past 500 years, the result was war. The great Greek historian Thucydides identified these structural stresses as the primary cause of the war between Athens and Sparta in ancient Greece. In his oft-quoted insight, "It was the rise of Athens and the fear that this inspired in Sparta that made war inevitable."

Note that Thucydides identified two factors: a rising rival and fear of that rise. China is rising. The US power elite fears its rise. And for good reason. Having the world’s reserve currency is an ‘exorbitant privilege‘, as Charles de Gaulle described it.

It allows Americans to buy things from overseas without ever really paying for them. Instead, we send over pieces of paper. That paper is then held in foreign vaults as reserves. Or it is lent back to us.

From an economic point of view, the system (established by Richard Nixon in 1971) is loopy. The Chinese pretend they have good customers. Americans pretend they have good credit. And everyone pretends to get richer…based on promises to settle up sometime in the future.

In practice, nobody wants the day of reckoning to come. Because they all know that there are vastly more claims on tomorrow’s output than tomorrow can satisfy. Between 1971 and today, roughly $10 trillion more has been received by Americans in goods from overseas than has been shipped to foreigners. That money is an outstanding claim on existing US wealth and future output.

There is also (with some overlap) about $17 trillion worth of US government debt…also a claim on future American output. And this is just part of the total credit market debt of $55 trillion. (Not to mention the feds’ unfunded liabilities.)

To pay off these claims, the US would have to run a surplus. (When? How?) But instead of running a surplus, we run deficits. The federal government’s deficit, for example, is expected to be $744 billion this year. And the current account deficit is running at about $500 billion. Neither is near a surplus.

Instead of edging toward a reckoning, all major governments seem to want to make the situation worse.

The US stimulates its people to buy more Chinese-made goods. And China stimulates its manufacturers to make more stuff for people who can’t really afford it. Both are heading for trouble.

Americans are hooked on spending. They consume their wealth…and more. China is hooked on producing. As it adds productive knowhow and capacity, it becomes more and more competitive. Not only can it produce more consumer output at lower prices, but also it can produce the latest in military hardware.

It’s a matter of time before that fighting gear comes out. At least, that’s what history suggests.

If there is a military conflict, how will it turn out?

The US spends three times more than China on ‘defense’. Advantage: Pentagon. But as the Persians discovered in their wars with the Greeks, having the biggest, best-funded army does not necessarily give you an edge. Instead, it invites sluggishness, complacency and overreaching.

The US military is arguably the fattest, most zombie-infested bureaucracy in the world. It suffers from an overabundance of resources. It supports troops (at a cost of $1 million per soldier per year) all over the globe.

It builds weapons systems that are often obsolete before they are put into service. It coddles armies of lobbyists, contractors, consultants, retirees, hangers-on and malingerers. Like all bureaucracies, it looks out first and foremost for itself. Looking out for the security of the nation is a distant second.

Its 11 huge aircraft carriers, for example, may be marvellous ways to generate contracts, fees and expenses. They may also be great ways to throw US military muscle into two-bit conflicts around the world.

But put them up against a modern, electronically-sophisticated enemy… Then what?

We will probably find out…


Bill Bonner
for The Daily Reckoning Australia

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Bill Bonner

Bill Bonner

Best-selling investment author Bill Bonner is the founder and president of Agora Publishing, one of the world's most successful consumer newsletter companies. Owner of both Fleet Street Publications and MoneyWeek magazine in the UK, he is also author of the free daily e-mail The Daily Reckoning.
Bill Bonner

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6 Comments on "The US and China are Heading for Trouble"

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Liaoping Wee
Liaoping Wee
2 years 9 months ago

Maybe this why united states trying to form merger with canada?
Even combined they no match for the power of china. Our culture exist before there even was a us or canada and once we defeat us military we can help canada to develop resource.

Japan and Taiwan also welcome to join with china, just like Manchuria we will accept anyone into greater china.

Warm regards americans.

slewie the pi-rat
slewie the pi-rat
2 years 9 months ago

BB is a self-avowed, card-carrying member of the 1%, and when i first read this, i had these thoughts:
> this is the best sabre-rattling he can come up with?
> well, then, we Are doomed!

but, after thinking this through, more deeply, i GOT it!

i sure hope that China’s top Party elites don’t take umbrage with: “The US military is arguably the fattest, most zombie-infested bureaucracy in the world.”

man oh man-da-rin!
talk about stepping on Superman’s cape!

way2go, Bill!
you da man!

2 years 9 months ago
Geriactric, aging racist China verses the decrepit corrupt USA. China has one advanage, the fifth column inside America but that can be eradicated by conventional warfare, if it comes to a nuclear showdown the US will glass China it is simple as that. America had thousands of nuclear, chemical and biological warheads and they can and will kill millions. But, if the arrogant Chinese want to ‘rule the world’ then they better hurry or they’ll be fielding armies of old fossils in moterized wheelchairs with gun attached like Daleks becuase America has one advantage over China that will be a… Read more »
2 years 9 months ago

The problem is .. It many not be well known among the financial pundits who write about these weird warlike China scenarios, but China’s internal security budget is larger than its military budget. Such is the need for internal control of its citizens. Indeed, think Arab Spring, with multiple Tiananmen Square episodes as a catalyst. As for China prosecuting a large scale war with the US – Forget it.

2 years 9 months ago
Comments that resort to throwing U.S nukes around as a threat to people of other countries don’t work anymore. The U.S lost its monopoly long ago on delivering nuclear warheads worldwide. If the U.S and its allies were stupid enough to embark on provoking a hot war directly with China then they would find out exactly how many trump cards are held by China and Chinas allies. How many deliverable Nukes does China have? Nobody knows because they won’t say but judging by the amount of uranium they’ve been burning through while not building extra storage facilities for spent fuel,… Read more »
2 years 9 months ago
How many more idiots still think this is the 20th century with tooled up superpowers? America, China and Russia have their problems, none are capable of ruling their own nations. Military intelligences from all sides know who has what in the weaponry department, the US for example could obtain information on China and Russia simply by bribing corrupt military officers or bureaucrats for the information. I’m yet to see how ‘better’ China or Russia is to the USA. Both are corrupt, both face demographic collapse and all are dependent on cheap oil, without that none of them can do Jack… Read more »
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